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People used to find various ways to preserve their food before the advent of mechanical refrigeration systems. Some preferred using cooling systems of ice or snow, which meant that diets would have consisted of very little fresh food or fruits and vegetables, but mostly of bread, cheese and salted meals. For milk and cheeses, it was very difficult to keep them fresh, so such foods were usually stored in a cellar or window box. In spite of those measures, they could not survive rapid spoilage. Later on, people discovered that adding such chemical as sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate to water could lead to a lower temperature. In 1550 when this technique was first recorded, people used it to cool wine, as was the term ‘to refrigerate’. Cooling drinks grew very popular in Europe by 1600, particularly in Spain, France, and Italy. Instead of cooling water at night, people used a new technique: rotating long-necked bottles of water which held dissolved saltpeter. The solution was intended to create very low temperatures and even to make ice. By the end of the 17th century, iced drink including frozen juices and liquors had become extremely fashionable in France.


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Talking about health and nutrition, it is very important to eat fibers and vegetables during our meals. Health experts suggest that one full course meal should be half full of vegetables and other half should be proteins, carbs and fats. What kind of vegetables we consume is also vital, because not all vegetables are considered up to the mark. The calciferous vegetables such as cauliflower and cabbage and are recommended and they should be thoroughly washed with warm water and salt. The calciferous veggies are rich in fiber and vitamins as well as they are low calorie so it helps to fight against weight gain.
It is also very crucial to reduce the amount of proteins and carbs in our diet. Everyday we need all kinds of proteins, fats and carbs but not in a large quantity. If the body is not performing heavy lifting or exercise then very little amount of carbs and proteins will do the job. Some people even turned to carb-less diet. However, little they know that carbs are required to build new muscles and in the repair function. Our body needs very small amount of carbs with each meal to open up the muscle cell to accept the influx of proteins.


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The time when Earth was forming into a giant revolving rock, the period, known as its origin about 4 billion years ago. Every ancient culture that has been ever lived – depicts their own story of Earth’s origin. Take the Mayan’s or even early Roman manuscripts all point out to a one and the same thing in different ways and words. Although some civilization formed their beliefs merely by observing various geological formations, others said it because their elders thought so. Notwithstanding that, some cultures even had calculated the time since Earth became the Earth. Many civilizations had it far off the exact time that we know of today.
Take for example today’s carbon dating technique, that we use to tell the precise age of any living or non-living entity. It is just to find out the number of carbon isotopes that did exchange CO2 with the air, but it can age items under just 50,000 years of age. Today scientists use other techniques like radioactive compounds with half-life of over a billion years. But the point is, for ancient people, what ignited the thought that this planet Earth had a birth time or an origin? All in all, it is the big conundrum that why ancient times people used to talk about the Earth’s origin and an idea of its timescale.


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In recent years fisheries use modern sound engineering techniques to locate schools of fish in the deep blue ocean. The echo-location technique is so advanced that there is 98% accuracy of the data being projected from the sonar sensors. The fishing vessels can even use sonar app to get live feed of the catchment area and the density of fish. The setup is simple, it’s the sensors located at the bottom of the boat that send sound waves into the ocean where they possibly think schools of fishes could be found. Just like the flying bat, the sound waves return back from the objects in the sea and the computer creates an undersea map of all the objects underneath. The computer distinguishes between steady and moving objects to find whether its fish or rocks or any debris. The graphs are so colourful that it distinguishes between organic and inorganic matter. The precise shape of a fish tells where to look. Although this technique has helped the fishing industry a lot, it definitely shades light on the sustainability of the fish populations for the future. The modern fishing industry is drastically affecting fish populations for sure. All in all, the total cost to catch fish has gone down but experts believe that this method is not sustainable.

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